Glossary

Communication Terminology

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Ad hominem
A fallacy that rejects the argument and attack the person’s character who makes facts or having predicaments to the statements made by the person.

Advertising
A form of marketing communication used as a promotion that influences the purchasing power and behavior of the product and services.

Advertorial
An advertisement in a magazine giving information about the service otherwise called as the objective journalistic article.

Applied Research
Research that is conducted to find answers to specific questions that is used to solve an actual problem or fulfill an existing need.

Audience
A group of people or individuals who receive information from the same source by listening or watching together from various mediums of communication like TV, Radio, Internet etc.

Auteur Theory
This film theory developed in 1950s and states that every aspect of a film from the dialogues to technical aspects is the creative vision of the director. The French term ‘auteur’ means author.

Background Information
This involves locating/investigating the basic sources to collect the primary information about the subject. The background information is the stepping stone to continue any type of communication process and style that will help in better understanding of the concept.

Basic Research
Research that is conducted to increase or expand our understanding or knowledge about various phenomena and is mostly theoretical by nature.

Beat
A reporter’s area of specialization or the topic of interest he or she exclusively focuses on. Example: court beat, education beat, health beat, local sports beat, etc.

Bias
Being prejudiced or inclined towards the information and ideas. The inclination is for or against a person or information. The biased information or outlook is considered unfair and usually fabricated.

Blog
Published by individuals online, it is an expression of their thoughts and ideas in the form of writings, art, photography, etc. It may be in the form of a commentary or a diary.

Brainstorming
A group discussion activity where the focus is on the expression of multiple ideas and thoughts that could be used as solutions to a problem. The aim is to generate as many creative ideas and approaches as possible and not on making a final decision.

Broadcast Feature
Broadcasting of news story that gives more coverage than the regular news that is usually from 30-60 seconds. A broadcast feature takes deeper look on the story/event very detailed information. This method is used in all mass communicative mediums.

Byline
Located above an article in the newspaper, it consists of the name of the journalist who has prepared the news story.

Campaign
Activities or events organized to achieve the intended goal of reaching audiences that use various advertising methods like Road shows, TV Commercial Films or CF, Internet etc., for a specific period of time.

Caption
A Space provided for brief explanation below an image or video or poster.

Catharsis
The release of pent up or suppressed emotions through indirect ways.

Celebrity
An individual who has a claim to fame because of his achievements in a particular field. He/she is widely recognized by large groups of people. Example: Actors, Sportsmen, Pop Stars, etc.

Clutter
Refers to the numerous and at times excessive number of advertising or non-programming content that an individual is exposed to while viewing television.

Column
A space given for writing an article that shows the opinion of the writer. The writer is called as columnist.

Commercial
An advertisement slot that appears from 15-30 seconds in TVs, Radios, films with an object of capturing the viewers/listeners attention within those given seconds.

Commotainment
A television programme format where a combination of dramatization and testimony is used, normally to promote a product or service. Example: Home shopping television channels which demonstrate the benefits of various products and ask the viewer to call in and place an order.

Communication
The process of sharing or exchanging information that is made of understandable language, usage of symbols, writing, speaking and sign languages are some of the modes of communication.

Communication Competence
It is an extensive ability to conduct an interactive communication that has exception accuracy, clarity, knowledge on the context and generate adaptive communication deciding on the perspective.

Communication Policy
Policies that is set by the organization who are the final authority to decide the communication to be made, setting communication policy is the vital role of a company that determines the method to give the stakeholders and the public an effective and high quality information that can accurately engage the in the two way communication and response.

Community Radio
A model of radio broadcasting that is not commercial or public service in nature. It is a non-profit service whose target audience is small geographic communities or other small groups of people. They are run by the communities that they seek to serve in order to help bring about development.

Controlled Media
The publication materials that are controlled and distributed by the company or organization themselves like Newsletters, Brochures, leaflets etc., to make their employees aware about the progress of the company, new product launch,achievements etc.

Copyreader
A person who proofreads the softcopy to check for typography, punctuations, style and language, the person is otherwise also called as proofreader.

Copyright
A process of legal procedure created in protecting the creative work from any unauthorized use.

Corporate Communications
It is a set activity that involves managerial communication that is set to operate both internal and external communication to build trust of employees, stakeholders and general public with the organization.

Correlation Research
A type of analysis where two variables are compared against each other in order to check if the two share a relationship between them.

Counterprogramming
A scheduling technique where a programme in a completely different genre from that which is aired on a rival channel is telecast in order to attract a different audience.

Cross programming
The stretching of a storyline over two episodes of two different programmes.

Cub
A reporter who has newly joined a newspaper who is being trained. He is also referred to as a rookie.

Cultural Studies
An analyzed critical study on the cultural implications that can influence or conflict with the traditions, with a continued understanding of the given culture, the communication is seasoned according to the cultural influence and preferences.

Current Affairs
A form of broadcast journalism where news stories that have recently taken place or is of ongoing interest is discussed or analyzed in detail.

Date Line
A brief space that has dates included in the news articles when or where the story has occurred or filed.

Dayparting
A scheduling strategy where a day is divided into different parts and during each individual part, a different type of programming is aired. This is done to meet the needs of the target audience that tunes in during that time.

Defensive Communication
Behavior that occurs in the form of communication to defend him/herself when the person feels threatened, the increase in defensiveness affects the person’s manner of speech, verbal content etc losing the spontaneity and clarity of the message sent to the listener.

Dependent Variable
Variables in an experiment that change only due to manipulations done to the independent variable. It is the variable that is measured to understand the effect of making changes to the independent variable.

Descriptive research
Research that focusses only on describing existing conditions in the society without measuring the effects of a particular variable.

Development Communication
A concept, approach or philosophy that deals with the use of communication and its principles or techniques in order to bring about development and improve the society.

Development Journalism
Journalism that focuses on bringing about development in the society by reporting on the need for development, obstacles to development, actions taken by the government and successful projects. Normally an investigative style of reporting is used here.

Display Ads
An advertising type that displays images, logos, such ads are usually found in posters, billboards, flyers etc.

Downward Communication
The message and the information flows downwards following the chain of command in the organizational hierarchy. The responses from the downward communication move along the same path reaching the higher up of the chain.

E-Content
The delivery of any subject content to the end user by means of electronic equipment or devices with the help of multimedia tools. Example: DVDs, Websites, Mobile Phones, etc.

Editor
Editor is the person who approves the article/content for publishing after reviewing and refining.

Editorial
A piece of an article written by the experienced editorial staff expressing their views on the current/trending events in magazines or newspapers, it can often be seen as a parody cartoons. Editorial articles are given a separate section, where Letters to Editor also appears.

Embargo
Refers to the time period when news organisations cannot air or publish news information that they have obtained. They can only publish the news once the time period passes. Example: When details of the President’s speech are released early to the press but they are not allowed to release this information until the embargo has been lifted.

Endorsement
In advertising, when an individual, mostly a celebrity backs or attaches his name to a product or service which he may or may not be an expert on.

Ethnocentrism
A complex or having a feeling of superiority in one’s own culture and group.

Ethnography
A detailed and wholesome account of the structure and function of all aspects of a culture. It is the outcome of a process of systematically observing a culture, describing, documenting and analyzing the findings.

Ethos
The eminent character, moral and beliefs of an organization or a company is otherwise called as ethics or standard.

Explanatory Research
Research done to explain or to find reasons behind existing condition or behaviors in society.

Exploratory Research
Research that is conducted in order to know more about a problem that has not been defined clearly. It depends highly on secondary information and deals with identifying the most appropriate research design, research method and sample.

Feature Article
The main article or news content that appears in the front page of the newspaper, feature article is also called as cover story.

Feedback
The number or the quality of the response the receiver gets from the message or a query sent.

Field Observation
It is a qualitative research method where people are observed in their natural settings and information on their interactions and different types of behaviors displayed are noted down or recorded for further analysis.

Flipping
The act of using a television remote to change between channels during a programme or between programmes.

Focus Group
A group that consists of six to twelve people, who share similar characteristics, is brought together in a facilitated discussion in order to gather information or opinions about a well-defined topic of interest.

Genre
A form of categorization or classification that is used to differentiate one type of a film, music or art from another. Each genre has a unique set of elements that can be identified easily.

Grapevine
The informal channels of communication that is formed by acquaintances, friends, and grass root workers of an organization.

Grazing
The act of an individual whereby while watching television, he scans or changes to different channels continuously using a remote.

Hammocking
A strategy for scheduling new or untested television shows between two other well performing or popular shows.

Hard news
News that is timely and characterized by its importance to large groups of people and features information about happenings in the government, legal cases, disasters, scientific developments, etc. It is highly fact based.

Headline
Appears on top of an article in a newspaper, above the byline and is the main title. It sums up the main essence of the news story in very few words.

Hedonism
A social phenomenon that occurred during the Victorian era. It dealt with the pursuit of sensually self-indulgent pleasure.

Hermeneutics
It is the science and art of interpretation. It deals with the rules, principles and methods that are applied during interpretation and explanation.

Hierarchy
The chain of command or power of authority where the subordinate reports to superior in an organization, it can also be called as ranking.

Homepage
The first page in a website that a person views when he/she types the main URL of the website. It is the front welcoming page and normally features information about the website and has links to other pages. Example: the page that appears when you type www.facebook.com.

Horizontal Chain of Communication
Exchange of information and interaction with two or more number of people who are on the same hierarchical level of the organization.

Hotswitching
A scheduling technique where there is no break for advertising between two programmes. The second programmes starts as soon as the first one ends and this technique is used to make audiences of the first programme watch the second as well.

Impression management
Efforts made by an individual or a group working to improve and create a positive image about themselves.

In-Depth Interview
A qualitative research method where the researcher engages in a one to one personal conversation with an individual in order to gather information on a topic of interest. The interviews are mostly unstructured and proved a detailed insight into the thoughts and views of the person being interviewed.

Independent Variable
The variable to which a particular treatment is applied, the one that is manipulated or changed in an experiment.

Informal Communication
Communication links and networks that doesn’t follow any pattern or charts that is followed in the organization, they arise through natural interactions among people.

Inter-organizational Communication
Communication structures that flows between two organizations that enables the competitive spirit in between the organizations.

Intercultural Communication
Interaction between the individuals or groups with two different culture or subculture as their background.

Interpretation
Assigning meaning by understanding and preserving the process relying on the actual model to get the information.

Interview
A question and answer session carefully planned and executed to exchange information between two parties.

Issue Management
The process of addressing the public that concerns with the impact of organization’s direct involvement with high priority given to the reputation of the organization and the team of issue management comes up with the solution for the identified issue.

Kinesis
A form of non-verbal communication, kinesis is referred to as body language is used as an interpretation of body movements, gesture, facial expressions etc.

Leadership
A quality in an individual that who brings out individual influences among the group members and organize it carefully to achieve goal. The leader has to maintain the balance and be unbiased when it comes to assigning tasks and recognizing the work achieved by a member.

Marketing Communication
Publicity and promotion for the products using different medias like TVs, Internet, Social Networking Sites etc as a mode of advertising.

Mass Communication
Transmission of messages to the people through various modes of communication that interests people in getting information from particular platforms, Mass communication uses strategic methods to relay the message to public in the most attractive medium that gathers more attention.

Mass Culture
Influence of common exposure to the popular culture familiarized through mass media and interaction among the people with common interest having an effect in the everyday lives of the people.

Mass Media
TV, Newspapers, Internet etc as a mass media helps to connect large number of people to send messages and information in a very short period of time.

Media Buying
The part of an advertising campaign that deals with identifying the media to be used and paying for or booking advertisements slots or space. This is done after negotiating pricing and deciding on the airing or publishing dates.

Media Dependency Theory
The theory suggests that there is a correlation between how much a person depends on the media and the level of importance that media holds in his/her life. The more the media fulfills one’s needs, the more importance its gains in one’s life.

Media Mix
It is the combination of different media that is selected to carry the advertising message to the target audience. The media are selected based on their reach and use among the target audience and if they help achieve the main objectives of the advertising campaign.

Media Planning
The process by which advertising agencies sift through a variety of media in order to identify the best and most suitable media that can be used during a campaign.

Mediated Interpersonal Technology
The use of technology as a medium for a face to face conversation like Internet, telephone etc.

Melodrama
Refers to either television series or films that have emotionally charged plots that contain elements of tragedy and romance. Common everyday situations and stereotypes are an integral part of these dramas.

Message
A set of verbal or nonverbal communication that contains information to be passed to another person or group.

Model
A description or representation of something that can be used as referral.

News Letter
Internal documents published regularly by the company giving information to the employees of the company that has details about the external factors that affect the company.

Non-Probability Sampling
A type of sampling where not every member of a population has a chance to be chosen. Assumptions about the population form the criteria for selection.

Nonverbal Communication
Exchange of messages that uses words and gestures as a communication codes like sign language.

Population
In research, it refers to all the people who share a particular characteristic that a researcher wishes to study. Example: All women who are vegans or all men who drive cars.

Probability Sampling
A type of sampling where every member of a population has an equal chance or opportunity of being chosen.

Probes
In interviews they refer to strategies or ways in which the person being interviewed is encouraged to open up and answer a question that they have previously avoided answering. For example, they could be alternative questions that call for a direct answer.

Questionnaire
A tool used in survey research which consists of a set of questions which when answered provides data that can be analyzed to meet the objectives of the research.

Sampling
A statistical process whereby a smaller sub set of people from the entire population is selected to form a sample. The people chosen share the characteristics that are representative of the overall population. The results obtained on studying a sample can therefore be generalized as being applicable to the whole population as well.

Semiotics
The science where the content and the ways in which signs and symbols are expressed are studied. The focus is on understanding how meaning has been assigned to the signs and how the meaning is being communicated.

Social Marketing
The use of marketing concepts and principles in order to bring about positive changes in beliefs and attitudes for the greater good of society.

Spot Schedule
A set of advertising messages that are telecast during only one or two periods each day.

Stacking
A scheduling technique where similar programmes are telecast as a group one after the in order to ensure that audiences continue watching the same channel.

Survey
A research methodology that is used to gather and investigate data from large samples via the use of detailed interviews or questionnaires.

Tentpoling
A scheduling technique where two programmes that are relatively new or have lower ratings are telecast with a highly popular programme between them. This is done in order to increase the audience for the relatively less popular programmes.

Totalitarian Theory
A theory that insisted on the need for the media to be completely controlled by the ruling party in order to suppress the expression of deviant pluralistic ideas and beliefs. The media was to be used exclusively to pass on the dictates of the party in power. Example: The total control of the media by the Nazis in Germany.

Validity
A statistical term which refers to the degree to which what you’re measuring is actually measuring what it was originally designed to.

Variable
Any aspect of the environment which can have different types of values assigned to it. Example: Age, Temperature, Income, etc.

Victorianism
A term used to refer to the beliefs, values, art and culture that were prominent towards the end of the 19th century in the British Empire. Values like sexual restraint, preference for a strict social code of conduct and a low tolerance of crime were espoused during this time.

Whistleblower
An individual who leaks out or discloses information on wrongdoings, illegal activities or other incriminating information to others within an organizational setup or to the general public.

Zapping
The process whereby an individual in order to not see any commercials, uses the television remote to change to a different channel.


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{ 2 comments… read them below or add one }

Janine July 20, 2016 at 1:03 pm

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taiwo November 15, 2016 at 11:04 pm

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